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Equine Vitamin-Mineral Deficiency Chart
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                                                                                                   •VITAMIN A •  VITAMIN B1 •  VITAMIN B2 •  VITAMIN D3 •  VITAMIN B6 •  VITAMIN E •  NICOTINIC ACID • PHOSPHORUS

                                                                          • SODIUM AND POTASSIUM • IRON •  COPPER • MAGNESIUM •   MANGANESE •  COBALT • ZINC • IODINE • CALCIUM




VITAMIN A

• EAR - Lowered resistance to infections.
• EYE - Xerophthalmia; night blindness; faulty vision; conjunctivitis.
• NOSE & THROAT - Infections of mucous membranes.
• TONGUE - Inflammations; glossitis.
• TEETH & GUMS - Aids in utilization of calcium; defective dentin; inflammation of gums.
• BLOOD VESSELS - By lowering of blood serum esterase, may affect fat metabolism. (see also Iron)
• NERVES - Degeneration of nervous system characterized by lack of co-ordination of legs and impairment of vision.
• HEART - Edema; lowered resistance to infections.
• HOOFS - Cracks, furrows, and abnormal growth.
• LUNGS- Lowered resistance to infections; haemorrhagic conditions.
• LIVER - Diseased conditions of organ may reduce capacity for storing vitamin A, and conversion of carotene and other pigment precursors in vitamin A.
• GASTRO-INTESTINAL SYSTEM - Disturbances in system may result in poor absorption of carotene and other pigment precursors of vitamin A, resulting in deficiency of this vitamin; poor gastric digestion.
• KIDNEYS - Nephritis; calculi; predisposes to secondary infections.
• COLON - Predisposition to oitis.
• URINARY BLADDER - Cystitis; calculi.
• SEXUAL ORGANS: Male - Deficiency of long standing may result in sterility; testicular degeneration, particularly when associated with deficiency of Vitamin E.
• SEXUAL ORGANS: Female - Sterility; weak or stillborn offspring; faulty lactation.
• MUSCLE - Lack of muscular co-ordination.
• SKIN & COAT - Predisposes to dermatitis of various types; roughened coat.
• BONES & JOINTS - Affects utilization of calcium, thereby affecting structure and formation of bones and joints; joint involvement with lameness and rarifying lesions in joint  cartilages.

VITAMIN B1

• TONGUE - Glossitis; atrophy, edema.
• NERVES - Various disturbances associated with nervous system; nervousness; irritability; neuritis.
• BLOOD VESSELS - Capillary weakness; anemia.
• HEART - Decreased B content of heart muscle, normally high in the horse; myocardial infections; hypertrophy.
• GASTRO-INTESTINAL SYSTEM - Poor appetite; anorexia; gastric disturbances; faulty carbohydrate metabolism; nervous dyspepsia; inanition.
• COLON - Stasis; faulty absorption.
• SEXUAL ORGANS: Female - Termination of oestrus cycle; disturbances in endocrine secretions; faulty ovulation.
• URINARY BLADDER - Incontinence due to nervous irritability.
• MUSCLE - Muscular atrophy; degeneration and wasting of muscular fibre; vitamin not stored in muscle tissue, except cardiac muscle, to any appreciable extent.
• SKIN & COAT - Dry, scaly skin.
• BONES & JOINTS - Bone marrow degeneration.

VITAMIN B2

• EYE - Keratitis, corneal ulcer; cataracts.
• TONGUE - Ulcerations; oedema.
• NERVES - Nervous tissue involvement.
• TEETH & GUMS - Inflammation of gums.
• BLOOD VESSELS - Secondary anaemia.
• GASTRO-INTESTINAL SYSTEM - Faulty carbohydrate metabolism.
• COLON - Colitis; degenerative changes.
• SKIN & COAT - Certain types of dermatitis and skin lesions.

VITAMIN D3

• NERVES - Nervous irritability.
• TEETH & GUMS - Defective calcification; decay and dental caries. (see also Calcium & Phosphorus)
• BLOOD VESSELS - Deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in blood.
• SEXUAL ORGANS: Female - Affects reproduction and viability of offspring.
• MUSCLE - Rickets, resulting in poor muscle co-ordination.
• BONES & JOINTS - Poor absorption of calcium and phosphorus resulting in low content of theses mineral elements in the
bones; poor dentition; rickets; osteomalacia and osteoporosis; faulty bone structure.
(see also Calcium & Phosphorus)

VITAMIN B6

• NERVES - Loss of nerve and muscular co-ordination.
• GASTRO-INTESTINAL SYSTEM - Faulty metabolism.
• MUSCLE - Loss of muscular control.
• SKIN & COAT - Skin lesions; roughened coat.

NICOTINIC ACID

Nicotinic Acid & Other B Complex Factors

• TONGUE - Pellagra-like syndrome.
• BLOOD VESSELS - Anemia.
• GASTRO-INTESTINAL SYSTEM - Anorexia; digestive disturbances; poor assimilation.
• SKIN & COAT - Skin lesions; loss of hair.

VITAMIN E

• NERVES - Lack of nerve and muscular co-ordination.
• SEXUAL ORGANS: Male - Sterility, responding poorly to treatment; sterility associated with vitamin A responds more readily to vitamins A and E treatment; gonadal atrophy resulting in impotence.
• SEXUAL ORGANS: Female - Sterility, miscarriages; resorption of embryo; sexual frigidity.

CALCIUM

Bone-Building Element

Essential for building of normal bones and teeth.

• Also of importance in heart, nerve and muscle functions.
• Essential element in blood.
• Utilized by the body in enzyme activation.
• Essential for lactation and reproduction.
• Ratio of calcium to phosphorus intake of extreme importance; imbalance, particularly high phosphorus to calcium may result in osteodystrophia fibrosa. Satisfactory ratio of Ca-P equals 1.0-0.8.

PHOSPHORUS

Bone-Building Element

Essential for building of sound bones and teeth.

• Also essential to metabolism of carbohydrates and fats and enzyme activation.
• Important in enzyme activity of vitamins B1 and B2.
• In form of its salts, acts as a buffer in blood and muscle tissue.
• Phosphorus may be deficient in the roughage feed in certain regions.

SODIUM AND POTASSIUM

Cell and Body Fluid Regulating Elements

Regulate osmotic pressure in cellular tissue of body fluids.

• Aid in regulation of buffer action of blood and ion balance.
• Potassium aids in regulating muscle function.
• Sodium protects body against excessive dehydration
• Deficiency of potassium not usually common in herbivorous animals who, however, require additional salt (sodium chloride) in their diets.

IRON

Blood-Building Element

Essential in formation of haemoglobin, in oxygen transfer, and in cell respiration.

• Aids in blood cell development and prevention of nutritional anaemia.

COPPER

Bio-Catalytic Element

Necessary together with iron in formation of haemoglobin, acting only as "Biological Catalyst".

• Aids in tissue respiration and prevention of certain types of nutritional anaemia.

MAGNESIUM

Muscle and Bone Building Element

Essential for normal growth of animals.

• Essential for nerve and muscle activity, and bone structure.
• Acts as a coenzyme in phosphorus metabolism.

MANGANESE

Essential Trace Element

• Essential for normal growth and the proper functioning of lactation and reproduction.

COBALT

Essential Trace Element

• Deficiency may result in loss of red blood cells and in emaciation and general rundown condition.

ZINC

Essential Trace Element

Aids in promotion of normal growth and tissue respiration.

• Interrelated with insulin and vitamin B1 deficiencies in certain animal species.
• May play role in development of normal coat of hair.

IODINE

Essential Trace Element

Essential in the growth and functions of the thyroid gland and formation of thyroxine.

• Important in regulation of basal metabolism.
• For prevention of goiter.
Anatomy of the Moving Horse
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